Fall protection covers, but is not restricted to, wire rope rails, solid rails and even travel restraints (harnesses with lanyards that stop you from reaching the edge from where you might fall). Fall arrest is what workers usually mean when they say "tied-off - you have a harness, a lanyard, and an anchor point.
Correct Harness Usage
Trained, the first thing that needs to be done when wearing a harness is inspecting it. Check for signs of wear and tear on every strap, plastic fitting, grommet and buckle. Also see the last date of inspection (the is usually indicated on the tag). If you feel completely sure that the harness is in safe form, wear it and adjust accordingly (not too loose or too tight). Make it a point to tuck the ends of your straps into their fasteners - anything flopping around could get caught in something or be knocked loose. Learn about ansi z359 here!
Correct Lanyard Usage
When choosing your lanyard, you must one easy question: how high from the lower level is my anchor point? Now check whether it has been attached properly. If you have a deceleration device on your lanyard, it should be securely attached to your D-ring to ensure correct deployment. If you're using a retractable, the casing has to be attached to the anchor point. Lanyards that resemble bungee cords may be used either way. Know more about Fall Protection Systems here!
Proper Anchor Point
The OSHA requires personal fall arrest equipment to be able to carry a minimum of 5,000 pounds per attached individual. Except in cases where you have structural steel or an engineered anchor point (as an aerial lift, for example), you must be aware that the anchor point will hold. Certainly, this should be done strictly by a registered professional engineer no less. Besides, safety is an all-or-nothing proposition. And if you want true safety, you should only entrust it in the hands of certified experts.
Proper Fall Clearance
Moreover, your anchor point should limit your free-fall distance to 6 feet or lower. Say you're tied up around the feet, and your lanyard is 6 feet long and has a deceleration device. Your freefall should exceed 10 feet for that deceleration device to work (6 feet for the entire length of the lanyard plus the 4 feet between your feet and the D-ring). These forces can cause serious, if not fatal, damage to the body's internal organs. That's why the anchor point must always at least with the D-ring. Otherwise, other options should be considered, like railings, nets, and the rest. To know more about safety, visit this website at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_site_safety.